A new study has found the use of gauze that includes the hemostatic agent kaolin to be 100 percent effective in stopping traumatic bleeding by second application in a model of simulated hemorrhagic shock. In the study, treatment with QuikClot Combat Gauze®, a specially engineered surgical gauze impregnated with kaolin, successfully stopped bleeding in extreme physiologic conditions normally associated with a significant risk of fatality. Results were published in July 2012 in the peer review Journal of Surgical Research.
In the animal model study, researchers at the Department of Surgery at Madigan Health Systems used an established and validated ischemia-reperfusion swine model to produce clinically significant metabolic acidosis and dilutional coagulopathy, which are primary conditions associated with hemorrhagic shock. Subjects experienced a 35 percent blood volume loss and maintained significant metabolic acidosis and dilutional coagulopathy for six hours and 50 minutes. They then incurred a femoral artery injury and bled for two minutes before randomized treatment with either Combat Gauze® or standard gauze. A single application of Combat Gauze® was able to stop bleeding in 89 percent of subjects. Following a second round of treatment, Combat Gauze® was able to successfully stop bleeding in 100 percent of subjects. Treatment with standard gauze in the same model showed a 100 percent failure rate after the first application, and resulted in only one case of successful hemostasis after a second application.
“Traumatic bleeding associated with hemorrhagic shock is often fatal, and is unfortunately a common occurrence in military combat, in trauma associated with accidents and in law enforcement related injuries. This study shows conclusively that treatment with QuikClot Combat Gauze® is able to stop traumatic bleeding even in extreme physiological conditions that can result in hemorrhagic shock and often death,” said Giacomo Basadonna, MD, chief medical officer, Z-Medica Corporation.
In severe bleeding, the occurrence of acidosis, hypothermia and coagulopathy each can interfere with the body’s ability to clot blood and can individually result in death if not treated. Once the body is affected by all three conditions, also known as the lethal triad, the death rate exceeds 90 percent.
“We know that death from hemorrhagic shock can be best avoided when bleeding is stopped early, and this study shows that a kaolin-based hemostatic agent is highly effective even in subjects who experience severe physiologic conditions for more than six hours. Treatment with QuikClot Combat Gauze®, which is easy to both carry and store, can be life saving for all service members and other trauma victims who are at risk of hemorrhagic shock, especially those who are far from medical help,” said Scott Garrett, vice president, military and tactical programs, Z-Medica Corporation.
QuikClot Combat Gauze®, developed by Z-Medica Corporation, is the only product carried by all branches of the U.S. Military to control traumatic bleeding. The product is impregnated with kaolin, an inert mineral that quickly promotes blood clotting. It is indicated for external control of traumatic bleeding and is able to conform to any wound.
“The fact that QuikClot Combat Gauze® is as easy to carry, store and apply as standard gauze means that we can bring this potentially life-saving advantage to thousands of people affected by bleeding in the military, law enforcement, emergency medicine and other areas with no changes in standard operating procedures,” added Dr. Basadonna.
More information about QuikClot Combat Gauze® may be found at www.z-medica.com/military/Home.aspx .